Here is the history of AI during 20th century:
Year Milestone / Innovation
Karel Čapek’s play named “Rossum’s Universal Robots” (RUR) opens in London, first use of the word “robot” in English.
Foundations for neural networks laid.
Isaac Asimov, a Columbia University alumni, coined the term Robotics.
Alan Turing introduced Turing Test for evaluation of intelligence and published Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Claude Shannon published Detailed Analysis of Chess Playing as a search.
John McCarthy coined the term Artificial Intelligence. Demonstration of the first running AI program at Carnegie Mellon University.
John McCarthy invents LISP programming language for AI.
Danny Bobrow’s dissertation at MIT showed that computers can understand natural language well enough to solve algebra word problems correctly.
Joseph Weizenbaum at MIT built ELIZA, an interactive problem that carries on a dialogue in English.
Scientists at Stanford Research Institute Developed Shakey, a robot, equipped with locomotion, perception, and problem solving.
The Assembly Robotics group at Edinburgh University built Freddy, the Famous Scottish Robot, capable of using vision to locate and assemble models.
The first computer-controlled autonomous vehicle, Stanford Cart, was built.
Harold Cohen created and demonstrated the drawing program, Aaron.
Major advances in all areas of AI:
- Significant demonstrations in machine learning
- Case-based reasoning
- Multi-agent planning
- Data mining, Web Crawler
- natural language understanding and translation
- Vision, Virtual Reality
The Deep Blue Chess Program beats the then world chess champion, Garry Kasparov.
Interactive robot pets become commercially available. MIT displays Kismet, a robot with a face that expresses emotions. The robot Nomad explores remote regions of Antarctica and locates meteorites.