The famous language C# (pronounced as C sharp) is an object-oriented programming language used for web development and networking. C# is a creation of Microsoft that combines the C++ with the programming ease of Visual Basic. It is language based on C++ and contains similar features of Java. C# is precise as a common language infrastructure language.
Dutch Software Engineer Ander Hejlsberg created a team to develop a set of Microsoft’s .NET framework in January 1999. The .NET framework released C# language in January 2000 which supports several web technologies.
Microsoft aims to ease services and information over the web and to allow developers to build highly manageable applications. Using C#, programmers can develop existing code rather than repeatedly duplicating it. C# is the faster and cheaper to get new products easily to market.
As C# is an object oriented programming language, it supports the concept of encapsulation, polymorphism, and inheritance. C# support generic method and types, and it allows enabling developers of collection classes to define custom iteration behaviors that are simply used by client code.
In C#, the language code is checked for errors before it gets built into the app and errors are easily tracked down. If you code something in C#, then codebase is more consistent and thus easier to maintain size and complexity.
Simplicity of Java
Java is a powerful object oriented and cross-platform programming language. Instead of writing a numeric code, it allows a user to write code in English like commands. It can be read and written easily by users, and anyone who reads the program with a basic understanding of computer languages can understand it. Similar to English language, Java has a set of rules defining the way instructions get written, known as syntax. A program written in this high-level programming language is then converted to numeric codes that computers can understand.
The Java programming language has a base of an old language known as Oak. In early nineties James Gosling of Sun Microsystems created Java. Originally it was designed for use on the digital mobile device like cell phones. After releasing Java 1.0 in 1996, the focus of Java shifted to use on the Internet. It enables developers to create animated Web Pages. Over time, it has become the most successful language with over 6.5 million developers worldwide.
The basics of Java came from a programming language called C++, but this programming language is more powerful and simple to use. It is a language built to include a high level of security and it is the most secure programming language to date.
The power of C#:
In Java, the namespace does not specify a location of a source file, while in C#, the namespaces are more similar to C++. Java does not support method of delegates because delegates complicate the method invocation model which is slow, whereas C# includes delegates. Java includes checked exceptions to some extent which is very useful for good programming practice, but C# does not include checked exceptions.
Java does not support operator overloading and custom conversion, whereas C# supports operator overloading and custom conversion. Java API is managed through an open community process, whereas Microsoft completely manages C #. Lack of operator overloading somewhat unsuited for mathematical programs in Java. Whereas C# allows operator overloading which used carefully can make the code more readable.
The pointer is more complicated technology in Java RMI (Remote Method Invocation). It means program objects resides on one computer and gets referenced within a program running on an entirely separate computer that’s why Java does allow pointer concept. C# allows the use of Pointer concept, but some developers consider pointer as unsafe.
Methods and Data Types:
In Java, the methods are virtual by default. Virtual methods guarantee that the most overridden method of an object gets called at the runtime. On the other side, a method in C# is non virtual by default.
Information about the generic types is lost during compilation of Java source code whereas C# supports generic type and preserves them after compilation. Java supports inner class and anonymous class but does not include the concept of partial classes. C# support inner class, anonymous class, and partial class.
Java does not support object initializers and collection initializers, instead, support instance initializers. C# support object initializers and collection initializers. In Java array is direct specializations of an object. Array in C# specialization in array system array class that implement some collection interface.
Java does not support conditional compilation, whereas C# supports conditional compilation using pre-processor directives. Java does not support go to statement, whereas C# support goes to statement. Java required every method to declare checked exception or super classes. C# does not require a declaration of exception and super classes.
Java does not support cross-language interoperability, whereas C# support cross-language interoperability. Java does not support Marshalling, external glue code required to marshalling in Java code. C# support marshalling which is metadata controlled and you can hire freelancers with good experience to work on such projects.
Java supports accessor methods a coding pattern based on method name convention. C# support corresponding gets and sets accessor as an alternative to accessor method in java. The inbuilt types passed by value are known as primitive types in Java, and in C# they are passed by values are called as simple types.
In Java, you can define the methods only for class reference types. In C# methods are not linked to the reference type. Java does not support complex number, but C# supports working with complex numbers. Java support signed integer’s type, whereas C# support unsigned integers in addition to signed integer’s type.
Java programming language runs on of Java runtime environment, and C# runs on the common language runtime. Open JDK (Java Development Kit) is one of the major implementation of Java. Visual C#.NET framework Mono and DotGNU are a major implementation of C#. Java type safety is safe and does not support tuples, whereas C# type safety in unsafe and support tuples.
Summary: Java and C# are both very mature object oriented programming languages. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages. Both languages have strong support from Oracle and Microsoft, and because of their power and versatility, they both have survived for long years in all new generation languages.